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Archive for the ‘Origin of Some Tribes’ Category

K.R. Murry, Rtd, Dy.D (Social Welfare), NST, Colony, Wokha

1. The brief history of Kyong Naga tribe.
The Kyong Naga Tribe is one of the Naga groups that first settled in the land of the Nagas, now called Nagaland. As the origin of any other Naga Tribes, the origin of the Kyong tribe is also shrouded in obscurity. The tradition and the legend of the Kyong Nagas tell of their origin from Mongolia and South-West China between the ridges of Yangtzekiang and Hoangho rivers from where they migrated to Burma (now Myanmar) and lastly to the Naga country through Manipur. The Kyong Nagas were also among the groups of Nagas that settled at Makhel and from there at Khezhakenoma where they believed to have owned a magic stone [known to them as Phitsson long (Phi-spread, tsson-increase and long-stone)] where a head load of paddy spread on the surface of the stone in the morning, double itself in the afternoon. The tradition says that the Angamis, the Sumis, the Sangtams, the Mongsen group of the Aos and the Kyongs split up from Khezhakenoma and went to different direction to their present homes and settled there permanently.
2. How we are called Kyong?
The ancestor of the Kyong Naga Tribe called themselves ‘Kyong’. However, I have not definitely found out as to how they are called Kyong. In course of many search for the sources of the origin of the Kyong, firstly an old man form Yanthamo village told me a folk story of the time immemorial when human, animals and birds spoke one language. In those days human became animal like Elephant, Tiger, Monkey and birds and animals also became human. Once in a big village, there live many Morung Youths (Chumpoe Nunghori). Because of misunderstanding between the village elders and morung youth; the villagers did not supply essential food to the morung youths for many days and they were almost at the point of death due to starvation. Therefore, the chief of the morung youth (Chumporan) commanded and said, “If you all agreed, we will become Lishung (A kind of medium size birds which live in a flock) for our survival,” which all agreed. Then, he instructed them to imitate his action and started acting like flying birds and all the morung youths imitating him and acted like flying birds with their stretched out hands. Slowly, they all started flying round the morung house like birds, shouting ‘kyong, kyong’…and became Lishung birds. That is why ‘lishung still live in a group united even these days. From there the villagers started calling themselves ‘Kyong’ and it became the name of our Tribe. Secondly, one of the folk stories says that from the time of our migrations, the Kyong tribe was very big in number and counting of heads or census became very difficult. The last such head counting was taken at the place near the present Kohima. Inspite of their best efforts it became impossible to ascertain the exact number of our people. That was why the place was called ‘Khayima’ which means place of confused and puzzle counting (Kha=Counting, Yima=became confuse and puzzle). During my interviews with elderly person in N/Longidang, Longla , Yanthamo, Niroyo, Tsungiki and Koio villages many of them told me that during migration the population of our tribe was so big or large that head counting (census) was very difficult or impossible. Every time they attempted to have head count, it became more and more which in Kyong words ‘kyonga-kyonga’, or ‘kyongtsu’ which means numerous or multitude, or too big crowd. This version was also told to me by Rev. Yankey Patton in 1969. He said that an old man from Longsa village told him that Kyong was derived from the word “Kyongtsü” because our population was numerous to count as it increases day by day.
The theory of a large Kyong Tribe was confirmed by the British writers in the mid 19th century, when they wrote –
1. Beyond the Doyang, other large Tribes of Nagas exist – Lotah, Namsang etc. These tribes, I am informed differ from those of the west of river.
2. To the west of Dessai and between that river and the Dhansiri, the hills are inhabited by numerous and peaceful tribes of Nagas known to the Assamese by the name “Latoo”. Whatever may be the derivation or origin of the word ‘Kyong’ one thing is very certain that our forefathers called themselves Kyong, from the time immemorial. This is evident from the fact that when they referred to one another they said ‘ete Kyong’ which meant “our Kyong Tribe”. In oath taking, it was normal to swear “Kyongtsü na amu” , which mean to swear, let me die unnatural death and let the whole tribe observe ‘gena’ day for me or ‘Kyongtsü na a mying üntsav sitoka” which is to say, ‘let the whole tribe forbid to call my name’.
3. Before the coming of British.
Let us examine what our neighboring tribes called us before the coming of the British to our country. None of our neighboring tribes called us by the name as ‘Lotha’, rather they called us in their own names; “The Angamis called us ‘Chizima’, the Rengmas called us ‘Tungwenyu. The Semas called us ‘choimi’ and the Aos ‘Tsuner’. The Rengmas called us ‘Chokanyu’ also. Our immediate North-Western Ahoms did not identify us by any name but by general term as Nagas.
The Kyong Naga tribe was identified as;
1. Torhatias or Doyangia (i.e those who came by land) and
2. Panihahatias (I.e. those who came by water) .
4. First hand information as recorted by the foreign writers
Dr. W. E Witter, the first American Missionary to the Kyong Nagas wrote a book on Kyong, Outline Grammar of Lotha Naga Language with Vocabulary and Illustrative Sentences, 1888. This is the first book ever written in Kyong language and the oldest book in Kyongyi.
In this book he wrote as given below; “the affix ‘tzü’ or ‘tsü’ signifies all, large, whole. Kyontzü/Kyontsü = all human or for all mankind. Kyongtsü=for all Lotha, here he not only identified “Kyong” or ‘Kyongtsü” as whole Lotha tribe, but also differentiated Kyon=human or Kyontsü=all human or mankind and Kyong as the name of our tribe. Though he was a foreigner, he was not at all confused with ‘Kyong’ as the name of our tribe and ‘Kyon’ as human in general. This is the first information recorded on our tribe by foreigner.
L. A. Wadil, In his book ‘the tribes of Brahmaputra, 1901 (p.53)– while writing about the Kyong Tribe, the heading of his article read as Kyontsü, Tsontsü, Tsontzü, Meklai or Lotha. They called themselves as Kyontsü, a name which means ‘the men’. They are called ‘Lothas’ by other Nagas and ‘Meklai’ by the Assames. (Tsontsü- he meant Kyontsu).
Sir George Grierson in his Linguistic survey of India, 1902, reprinted in 1967, Vol. 3 (p.284) said; “The tribe is called Lotha or Tsontsü but its members called themselves ‘Kyo’ which means Lotha man and a man generally. It is not known which meaning is the original; Tsontsü is merely another spelling of ‘Kyo’ or Kyontsü, the term ‘Lothas’ is an Assamese one’.
S.A. Perrine, an American Missionary to Impur, Ao Area wrote two books in Kyong language for primary school children namely – Keon Khaphen Kako and Keon Ziphen Kako. Here the author meant ‘Keon’ for ‘Kyong’. I had seen these books in the possession of late Eramo N.L Kinghen, former chairman of Lothas Literature Committee (1971-1979).
J.H. Hutton, in his book ‘The Angami Nagas’. Sir. J.H. Hutton put a note on Kyong tribe. On the heading, he wrote Lotha (Kyong). He said ‘The Lothas who called themselves Kyong are located to the North-East of the Angami and Regma country, having the Semas to the East of them and the Aos to the North-east.
J.P. Mills, in his book ‘The Lotha-Naga’ also said, they call themselves ‘Kyon’ meaning simply ‘man’. The name ‘Lotha’ of which I have been unable to discover any derivation, being that which they are known to government. Here, J.P. Mills, who is thought to be the authority on Kyong Naga affairs, was not sure about the origin of the word ‘Lotha’.
Dr. W. E. Witter, the first American missionary to the Kyong Nagas, Who worked with them intimately in the mid 1880’s had given correct name to the tribe when he wrote that Kyongtsü for all Lothas and Kyon/Kyontsü for all human. He clearly distinguished Kyong/Kyongtsü from Kyon/Kyontsü. This is the correct and first hand information about Kyong Nagas. Secondly, J.H.Hutton who also intimately worked with the Kyong tribe gave the correct name as stated earlier. The other writers although gave important information about the name of our tribe however, they could not differentiate between Kyong and Kyon.

5. ORIGIN OF LOTHA.
The name of Kyong tribes as ‘Lotha’ was imported name, whether we like it or not Lotha is not our word or name and no meaning can be derived from it. As already explained earlier, before the coming of the British, we were never known or recognized by the name ‘Lotha’ either by us (ourselves) or by our neighboring Naga tribes. The name ‘Lotha’ was brought to our country by the British when they came to rule over us and used it for administrative purposes and adopted as official name and imposed on us.
We may see the following records given by the British Officers.
a. W. Robinson. In his report – A Descriptive Five Account of Assam (1841-pp. 380-390); while writing about our tribe, he wrote, “to the west of Dessai and between that river and the Dhansiri the hills are inhabited by numerous and peaceful tribes of Nagas known to the Assamese by the name ‘Latoo’ Nagas. They frequently come to the markets of Jorhat, Kachari hat and the hauts on the Dhansiri.” In subsequently paragraphs of his report, he repeatedly mentioned ‘Latoo Nagas’ as our tribe.
b. Lientenant Bigge. He was the first British Officer who met the Kyong-Nagas in Golaghat at the bank of Doyang River. About 70 of them came in boats, for marketing their agriculture products like cotton, dry chilly, oilseeds etc. He referred to them as ‘Lotah Nagas’.
c. E.R Grange in his tour report, 1840 referred to Kyong Naga tribe as ‘Lotas’.
d. Browne Wood in his tour report 1844 referred Kyong Naga as ‘Lota’.
e. Captain Brodie. He was the first Deputy Commissioner of Jorhat, Assam and was the first British officer who visited Kyong-Naga country in 1844. He visited all the villages from Mekukla to Meshangpen and Bhandari to Koro Villages etc. He referred Kyong as ‘Lotah’. He reported that Sonarigaon (Yanmhon Old) and Feetagaon (Yanmhon New), the two largest of the Lotah villages probably contain about 4000 inhabitants each. The other Lotah villages are comparatively small.
6. METAMORPHOSES OF THE LOTHA.
The Kyong tribe which the foreigners called them as ‘Lotha’ had undergone several changes. As such we can say as the metamorphoses of the Lotha. ‘Lotha’ was first mentioned by the British officers during 1839-40 in their reports. It was reported as ‘Latoos’ then as ‘Lota’, and ‘Lotah’ in the 1840s. Between the years 1874 and 1925 it was written as Lhota. Thereafter, it was finally changed into ‘Lotha’ which is being used till today. Let us examine it carefully if ‘Lotha’ is the original name of our tribe, it should not have undergone so many changes.
In our present context people are confused about ‘Kyong’ and ‘Kyon’ especially among our young generation, as it was so with foreign writers in those days who came in contact with the Nagas. They entirely depended on the informants. Moreover, they did not care about spelling while writing Naga words. So, we cannot blame them for writing incorrect spelling about the names.
7. LOTHA WAS IMPORTED NAME
‘LOTHA’ was definitely an imported name and not our original name or word and no explanation can be given about the meaning of the word. The British brought it along with them from lower Assam. Some Assamese in the lower Assam might have called us and imposed it on us as the name of the Kyong Naga tribe. Before the coming of the British people it was never known to our foreparents nor to our neighboring tribes. The Ahoms also did not identify us as Lothas. In course of my investigation of the origins of the word ‘Lotha’, I met Eramo E.S. Ngullie former language officer (Lotha) at his residence in Kohima. He knew Assamese very well. He told me that in Assamese ‘Lotah’ means ‘Creeper’ but it has no relation with Lotha. He also told me that he did not know the meaning of Lotha. Once I discussed with Shri H.R. Bora former Director of School Education Nagaland on the issue. I served as an Assistant Teacher under him when he was the headmaster of Wokha Govt. High School in 1968 to 1970. He told me that in Assamese ‘Lotah’ has two meaning – one as creeper and the other is long narrow neck earthen pot used as flower pot, but this word has no relation with the Lotha Tribe.
8. PRESENT DEVELOPMENT.
8.1. Historical Declaration by KBES.
The identity of a community is its language, culture, tradition and social practices. When any or all of them are lost its identity is also lost. Realizing these Kyong Baptist Church leaders of those days in their wisdom during Annual Convention held at Tsüngiki Village in 1979, they adopted a resolution to change the Lotha Baptist Churches Association into Kyong Baptist Ekhümkho Sanrhyutsü (KBES). This historic declaration by the Kyong Baptist Ekhümkho Sanrhyutsü was based on oral tradition as passed on to us and historical facts as recorded after the advent of British.
8.2. Establishment of the Kyong Academy.
The Kyong Academy was establish in 1993 and registered as a Civil Society under the Registration of societies Act 1969. Under the founding President Shri. Tselamo Kikon Ex-minister of Nagaland, along with more than 30 scholars and intellectuals and decided to name the society as Kyong Academy.
8.3. Renaming of Lotha Hoho as Kyong Hoho.
The Lotha Hoho after exhaustive discussions and consultations by its executive body in several rounds of meetings decided to change the Lotha Hoho into Kyong Hoho. The proposal was put up to Lotha Hoho Annual general meeting held on 26th to 27th November, 2007 which was attended by all the villages, Town and Range unit delegates unanimously adopted, a resolution to change the Lotha Hoho into Kyong Hoho vide resolution No.7. The minutes of the Annual general meeting was recorded by six delegates elected by the house in that meeting including one delegate each from Kohima and Dimapur. Thereafter, the Kyong Hoho formally notified the declaration by a Notification vide No. LH/WKA/M&R/03 dated Wokha the 4th May, 2008. This is final and ultimate. Now therefore, as far as the issue of ‘Lotha’ or ‘Kyong’ is concerned, it is a decided case and further review, debate or reconsideration does not arise at present stage now.
8.4. Kyong Students Union (KSU).
The Kyong students union the apex body of the student community of our tribe had also by a resolution changed the Lotha Students Union into Kyong Students Union.
Not discounting the Catholic and Assembly of God Churches and other Christian Denominations, we are bonafide members of Kyong Baptist Churches and members of the Kyong Hoho and deeply involved with the welfare and well being of our student community. We should therefore, respect the decision of the three apex bodies – i.e KBES, KH and KSU.
In our present context, we are encouraged to see many positive developments in our society that is many civil societies in Wokha District and smaller organization and sub-units, unions and Ekhung are adopting ‘Kyong’ for their organization. ‘Kyong’ also has been recognized by almost all the Naga tribes.
I would therefore, impress upon the Kyong intellectual, scholars and concerned individuals to move forward instead of going backward for further development of our tribe in all respect along with the rest of Nagas.

5. ORIGIN OF LOTHA.
The name of Kyong tribes as ‘Lotha’ was imported name, whether we like it or not Lotha is not our word or name and no meaning can be derived from it. As already explained earlier, before the coming of the British, we were never known or recognized by the name ‘Lotha’ either by us (ourselves) or by our neighboring Naga tribes. The name ‘Lotha’ was brought to our country by the British when they came to rule over us and used it for administrative purposes and adopted as official name and imposed on us.
We may see the following records given by the British Officers.
a. W. Robinson. In his report – A Descriptive Five Account of Assam (1841-pp. 380-390); while writing about our tribe, he wrote, “to the west of Dessai and between that river and the Dhansiri the hills are inhabited by numerous and peaceful tribes of Nagas known to the Assamese by the name ‘Latoo’ Nagas. They frequently come to the markets of Jorhat, Kachari hat and the hauts on the Dhansiri.” In subsequently paragraphs of his report, he repeatedly mentioned ‘Latoo Nagas’ as our tribe.
b. Lientenant Bigge. He was the first British Officer who met the Kyong-Nagas in Golaghat at the bank of Doyang River. About 70 of them came in boats, for marketing their agriculture products like cotton, dry chilly, oilseeds etc. He referred to them as ‘Lotah Nagas’.
c. E.R Grange in his tour report, 1840 referred to Kyong Naga tribe as ‘Lotas’.
d. Browne Wood in his tour report 1844 referred Kyong Naga as ‘Lota’.
e. Captain Brodie. He was the first Deputy Commissioner of Jorhat, Assam and was the first British officer who visited Kyong-Naga country in 1844. He visited all the villages from Mekukla to Meshangpen and Bhandari to Koro Villages etc. He referred Kyong as ‘Lotah’. He reported that Sonarigaon (Yanmhon Old) and Feetagaon (Yanmhon New), the two largest of the Lotah villages probably contain about 4000 inhabitants each. The other Lotah villages are comparatively small.
6. METAMORPHOSES OF THE LOTHA.
The Kyong tribe which the foreigners called them as ‘Lotha’ had undergone several changes. As such we can say as the metamorphoses of the Lotha. ‘Lotha’ was first mentioned by the British officers during 1839-40 in their reports. It was reported as ‘Latoos’ then as ‘Lota’, and ‘Lotah’ in the 1840s. Between the years 1874 and 1925 it was written as Lhota. Thereafter, it was finally changed into ‘Lotha’ which is being used till today. Let us examine it carefully if ‘Lotha’ is the original name of our tribe, it should not have undergone so many changes.
In our present context people are confused about ‘Kyong’ and ‘Kyon’ especially among our young generation, as it was so with foreign writers in those days who came in contact with the Nagas. They entirely depended on the informants. Moreover, they did not care about spelling while writing Naga words. So, we cannot blame them for writing incorrect spelling about the names.
7. LOTHA WAS IMPORTED NAME
‘LOTHA’ was definitely an imported name and not our original name or word and no explanation can be given about the meaning of the word. The British brought it along with them from lower Assam. Some Assamese in the lower Assam might have called us and imposed it on us as the name of the Kyong Naga tribe. Before the coming of the British people it was never known to our foreparents nor to our neighboring tribes. The Ahoms also did not identify us as Lothas. In course of my investigation of the origins of the word ‘Lotha’, I met Eramo E.S. Ngullie former language officer (Lotha) at his residence in Kohima. He knew Assamese very well. He told me that in Assamese ‘Lotah’ means ‘Creeper’ but it has no relation with Lotha. He also told me that he did not know the meaning of Lotha. Once I discussed with Shri H.R. Bora former Director of School Education Nagaland on the issue. I served as an Assistant Teacher under him when he was the headmaster of Wokha Govt. High School in 1968 to 1970. He told me that in Assamese ‘Lotah’ has two meaning – one as creeper and the other is long narrow neck earthen pot used as flower pot, but this word has no relation with the Lotha Tribe.
8. PRESENT DEVELOPMENT.
8.1. Historical Declaration by KBES.
The identity of a community is its language, culture, tradition and social practices. When any or all of them are lost its identity is also lost. Realizing these Kyong Baptist Church leaders of those days in their wisdom during Annual Convention held at Tsüngiki Village in 1979, they adopted a resolution to change the Lotha Baptist Churches Association into Kyong Baptist Ekhümkho Sanrhyutsü (KBES). This historic declaration by the Kyong Baptist Ekhümkho Sanrhyutsü was based on oral tradition as passed on to us and historical facts as recorded after the advent of British.
8.2. Establishment of the Kyong Academy.
The Kyong Academy was establish in 1993 and registered as a Civil Society under the Registration of societies Act 1969. Under the founding President Shri. Tselamo Kikon Ex-minister of Nagaland, along with more than 30 scholars and intellectuals and decided to name the society as Kyong Academy.
8.3. Renaming of Lotha Hoho as Kyong Hoho.
The Lotha Hoho after exhaustive discussions and consultations by its executive body in several rounds of meetings decided to change the Lotha Hoho into Kyong Hoho. The proposal was put up to Lotha Hoho Annual general meeting held on 26th to 27th November, 2007 which was attended by all the villages, Town and Range unit delegates unanimously adopted, a resolution to change the Lotha Hoho into Kyong Hoho vide resolution No.7. The minutes of the Annual general meeting was recorded by six delegates elected by the house in that meeting including one delegate each from Kohima and Dimapur. Thereafter, the Kyong Hoho formally notified the declaration by a Notification vide No. LH/WKA/M&R/03 dated Wokha the 4th May, 2008. This is final and ultimate. Now therefore, as far as the issue of ‘Lotha’ or ‘Kyong’ is concerned, it is a decided case and further review, debate or reconsideration does not arise at present stage now.
8.4. Kyong Students Union (KSU).
The Kyong students union the apex body of the student community of our tribe had also by a resolution changed the Lotha Students Union into Kyong Students Union.
Not discounting the Catholic and Assembly of God Churches and other Christian Denominations, we are bonafide members of Kyong Baptist Churches and members of the Kyong Hoho and deeply involved with the welfare and well being of our student community. We should therefore, respect the decision of the three apex bodies – i.e KBES, KH and KSU.
In our present context, we are encouraged to see many positive developments in our society that is many civil societies in Wokha District and smaller organization and sub-units, unions and Ekhung are adopting ‘Kyong’ for their organization. ‘Kyong’ also has been recognized by almost all the Naga tribes.
I would therefore, impress upon the Kyong intellectual, scholars and concerned individuals to move forward instead of going backward for further development of our tribe in all respect along with the rest of Nagas.
(Concluded)

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A. Punakha Sumi, Rtd. H.A, on behalf of Lazami Village Council
The Sumi tribe like every Naga tribe has its roots of existence and the Khezakeno Village is the center point of Sumi history. The Sumis (Lazami) and the Khezakeno Village have confirmed the relation between the two Village, affirming the bygones and beyond 2000. According to the two Village’s great forefathers’ version, one group of people led by a person named Khepiu had come to Kezhakeno Village from Makhel and thereupon the Naga generation began. It is not denied that every Naga tribe has its version of migration. Nevertheless, according to the two Village’s forefather’s version Khepiu had a son named Sopu, whose son was Koza, Koza’s son was Rou and Rou had three sons namely – Khrieu (Angami) the eldest, Leo (Chakhesang) the second, and the youngest Seo (Sumi). Like the two elder brother, the Sumi tribe has its origin name from Seo and at no point of time is the Sumi tribe name derived from tree or wood. Therefore, on behalf of the Sumi tribe, Lazami Village wishes to clarify this once and for all.
In this connection, Joseph S. Thong, author of Nagaland linguistic profile is requested to make necessary correction in his book Page 72-73 which refer to Sumi history.

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HNS/Chandel, Sep 20, 2013: “The Anals or Pakans including all Naga tribes of Chandel District are Nagas by blood having their own historical uniqueness, cultures and identities different from that of Kuki Tribe, Wng Victor Kohring, President of Anal Naga Tangpi (ANTA), one of the apex bodies of Naga Tribes in Chandel District, has stated.

In a statement, the ANTA President said that the statement issued by Kuki National Organization (KNO) President Ps Haokip on September 17, wherein the latter referred to the Naga tribes of Chandel as Old Kukis was ‘confusing’ and ‘misleading’.

Refuting the claim of KNO, the ANTA President asserted that the Nagas in Chandel District have a common true story of how they migrated in to this land now called Chandel district.

Every individual or community must understand, respect and honour the history, custom, culture, identity and the land that belongs to another group of individuals or community, the ANTA President said, while urging the tribal communities to refrain from all forms of violence by advocating the sacrament of reconciliation and harness to live in peaceful co-existence on the basis of Christian virtue of forgive and forget.

Referring to the book, ‘The North East Frontier of India’ written by Sir Alexander, Wng Victor Kohring said that the Anals and other Naga tribes were never old or New Kukis even in the Kuki country. According to Page No 83 and 146, old Kukis (Khelema clan, Ramthai clan, Bete clan and lamkhow clan)were reported in 1853 whereas new Kukis of 1851- 52 included Changsun tribe, Thado tribe and Shingshon tribe.

L Joychandra Singh in his book, ‘The Lost Kingdom” Royal Chronicles of Manipur page 5 para 1 stated that in the year 1479, King Chalomba conquered the Naga villages namely Anan/Anal, Moirang, Thingkhong ang Angthi but died in 1484. In the year 1600 (English era) during the month of August King Paikhomba attacked and conquered the villages of Anan/Anal and captured 30 men as captives, Wng Kohring quoted and said that these historical records of ancient Manipur Kings proved that the Anals were original Nagas for thousand years before Kuki brethren came to Manipur in 1840.

Wng Victor Kohring further pointed out that Captain Rajendra Singh in his book ‘The Anals of Manipur” page No. 18 and 19 stated that ‘in the wake of of Naga insurgency the underground movement gathered momentum in the Anal areas in 1961. 10th BN of Naga Army operated in the present Chandel district while the 11th and 12th BN of Naga Army operated in the Tangkhul and Mao areas respectively.

Dwelling on the difference of customs, culture between the Naga tribes of Chandel and the Kukis, Wng Victor Kohring pointed out that Anals as a Naga tribe have particular graveyards with erection of Patha (memorial stone) while Kukis practiced burial without erection of Patha (memorial stone).

Anals or Pakans including other Naga tribes of Chandel district are original Nagas and not fabricated one as stated by Ps Haokip in his statement, the ANTA President added.

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TL Angami, Convenor, Tenyimi Judiciary Court Hq Kuda, Nagaland

As per our Tenyimis Forefathers historical account handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth tell us that the Lothas and Semas are also from the same Tenyimis family. Tenyimis called the Lotha as Cuzhie-u. Cuzhie-u means while the parent provides food among the brothers, he could safe some of his food while other brothers finished their share. And for which, the parent named him Cuzhie-u and still there is Cuzhiema khel in Nerhema Village. And the Sema as the youngest brothers from Tenyimi family is called Sieu as he suffered ill health during his childhood and could not walk fast and was later called him Sema. The brothers of Lothas and Semas may agree or may not agree about this history. But the said historical fact is still fresh in the mind of some elderly as handed down from Forefathers through words of mouth. And there is still a traditional village of Sema as Sewemi Village located in Phek District near Chizami Village.

The Tenyimi family is in existence from time immemorial. It was the Britishers who first called all the Tenyimis as Angamis. As because, they all speak similar dialect of Tenyidie. We also are similar historical background mentioned in the Britishers book of “Angami Country”. It is a fact that in the early days there was no difference among the Tenyimi families, they lived together as a family by blood relation, and same is practiced between villages even today.

It may be stated that the Naga’s demand is Independent state and not the present constitutional state of Nagaland. And as such, no one can divide the families of Tenyimis on the excuse of the present state situated forcibly established in an undermarketed boundary of Nagaland by stating that Mao, Rongmai, Marang, Poumai, etc are not Nagas just because they are not from Nagaland or they are not from Tenyimi family.

As for Aos, I find it difficult to believe that according to the Ao traditional history, they came from a Cave of Six Stones (Longtorok). The present Naga different tribes were all in existence since time immemorial, and it will be it meaningless at present re-recognition of those tribes as traditional tribes. This is more so because, the Nagas are still fighting for Independence and the final political settlement is yet to be arrived at. And moreover, we do not know that what areas would be the final settlement for Nagaland.

Let us not reject each other at this stage, as because, we should not forget our forefathers historical fact so soon say within a half century of time. Also because, such rejection of each other traditional tribes may block the way of Naga integration. The Nagas whosoever live wherever in Naga inhabited areas permanently have right to get his or her share in whatsoever quotas is available for all the Nagas.

And though the Nagas may redefine their National boundary, the Nagas shall live together as a family as one in Jesus Christ. Killing and rejecting each other’s among the Nagas and lay claims only Nagas of Nagaland excluding other Nagas will lead to self destruction. And should this be our attitude the law of the land will force us to go back to our Native Village and thereafter it will be meaningless for the Nagas to fight for Independence.

Remember, it is only Tenyimis land that all the Naga tribes have come together to live as one family. Therefore it will be wrong to keep on harping on the divide on the basis of the so called constitutional boundaries which is nothing but divide and rule policy of the Government of India. Tenyimi family will go together and stay together till the water flows in the River.

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By L Wolring
The Anals were first settlers of Chandel District since BC. The historical ethnic violence prevailing today in Manipur state is the same condition as it was done in 18th century. The Kukis came to Manipur in A.D. 1840 and reached Khangbarol village in Chandel District in 1954 AD and they have killed many innocent Anals in their attempt to occupy the Anal land as they repeatedly do that at the present situation. The Churachandpur District is also the original land of “Hmar” or “Pakan”. Most of the Shingphos of Manipur have surrendered to the Kukis. Their names are ending with “Te” like – Paite, Ralte, Zoute, Simte, Sukte, Gangte, Mate and Baite etc.
THE “ANAL” IS NEITHER OLD KUKI NOR NEW KUKI
Sir Alexander Mackenzie says in his book (The North East Frontier of India), pp. 83 & 146 that the Old Kukis were reported in 1853 to be four clans, viz., Khelema, Ranthai, Bete and Lamkron. The New Kukis (of 1851-52) were of three tribes – Changsen, Thado and Shingshon. They inhabited “Kuki Country”, a portion of the Barail mountains which is one side of the head-waters of the Lanting and Dhansiri take their rise and go off towards the west and north. And on the otherside, Chuline, Makho and Jhiri Rivers flow towards east and south, a tangled mass of forest-clad hills comparatively low ridges thrown off from the present range upon which the broad conical peaks of Angoolo and Laishang rise up nearly 7,000 feet above the sea level. It helped us to understand that the Anal is neither reported to be Old Kuki or New Kuki even in Kuki country.
In Manipur, a god of waters (Sea King) appeared in the form of Python-man called Wangparel who married an Anal-woman WL. Shanghra of Anal Khullen village in A.D. 15 and to whom a male child was born and he became the first King of Manipur (A.D. 33-154). The name of the said King was called “Nongda Lairen Pakhangba”. The word “Lairen” or “Python” is simply interpreted in Sanskrit language as “Nag or Naga or Snake”. The Anals of Manipur are not real snakes but the Snake King ruled over them and converted all the Anals to the Naga tribe. This historical event proves that the Anal became Naga more than one thousand years ahead before the arrival of the Kukis in Manipur.
According to Shri L. Joychandra Singh in his book “The Lost Kingdom (Royal chronicles of Manipur) page 5 para I stated that in the year Sak 1479 (English Era 1557-58), King Chalamba conquered the Naga villages of Anan, Moirang, Thingnong and Engthi but died in 1484. His son King Mungyanba also conquered the Naga villages of Chakpa, Cherang, Sakang, Anan, Kabui, Shama, Thingnong, Engthi, Torang, Lanhang, hooitok and Tongal in Sak 1495 (English Era 1562-63). In the year Sak 1600 (English Era 1678-79) during the month of August, King Paikhomba attacked and conquered the villages of Anan and captured 30 men as captives. It was during the reign of Raja Charairongba arrested 23 Anan Nagas and convicted then in the year Sak 1626 (English Era 1704-05). These historical records of Ancient Manipur Kings proved that the Anals were original Nagas for thousand years before Kuki came to Manipur in 1840.
Some people who have read the book “The Lushai Kuki Clans” might have believed J. Shakespear’s note, “Anal is one of the Old Kuki Clans of Manipur” is not an innate occurrence. But it is an attempt to absorb the Anal tribe into Kuki Group. The meaning of “old” proves that the Anal is an old tribe of the first settler. In the book “Report on the Eastern Frontier of British India” – by Capt. R. Beileau Antiquarian studies in Assam, Gauhati 1966, page no. 58, Para no. 60th – stating that “Anal is one of the tribes belonging to Nagas”. And also G.A. Grierson states in his book “Linguistic Survey than the other dialects of the Kuki-Chin group.
Moreover, Capt. Rajendra Singh in his book “The Anals of Manipur” pp. 18 & 19 states that in the wake of Naga insurgency, the underground movement gathered momentum in the Anal area in 1961. The so-called 10th battalion of the Naga Army operated in the present Chandel District while the 11th Battalion was in Tangkhul area and the 12th Battalion was in Mao area. In this present situation, Chandel District is an area of NSCN activities as the area is occupied by the Anals and other Nagas from time immemorial.
R. Brown observed in his book “Statistical Account of the Native State of Manipur and Hill territory under its rules, 1893’ that the stone (Patha) as landmark erected by the Anals can be found as standing even today on the hill sides in Burma, the Lushai hills, and South East Manipur. For example, Thanlon in Churachandpur District is the word derived from the Anal dialect. The word “Than” means grave and “Lon” means hill so the meaning of Thanlon” means “Grave-Hill”. This proved that the Anals were the first settlers in Thanlon Sub-Division of Churachandpu District. And also, the Zote village situated just opposite of Aizawl in Mizoram is the old village of Anals as it has an evidence proof supported by one of Anal Folk songs which is still sung by Anal cultural dance group. It reminds us that the Anals were one of the major offshoots of the Indo-Mongoloid people. And their historic events have contributed greatly for day-to-day historic events of the Manipur State.
NON-RELATIONSHIP BY BLOOD
Non-relationship by blood means – not having co-existence between the Anal-Naga and the Kuki-Chin through all the bygone times. Referring to the history of Manipur at a glance, King Kiyamba was noted for military and civil administrative achievements. He made military expedition to the east in order to make eastern boundary of Manipur with annexation of Kabow valley to Manipur bounded by the Chindwin River. And also, he sent military arbitrators to the South-Front line of Manipur where inter-tribal feuds intensified the aggressive role of the Awa (Burmese) King. At that time, there were seven features of tribal folks in the South-Front line of Manipur namely Pawite (Pwois), Sukte (Chhawhte), Ralte, Kelki, Lungting, Adang and Pholkong were recognized as “Anan Hao” and “Chaba thakpa nanba Anan Hao”. The Kuki proverb says “Mikhou kaphatle mi anette kanet, yuongkhou kaphatle yuong anette kanet”. It is meant that the Kuki community is not serious minded of dirt and cleanliness about eating and drinking in the olden days. These two groups were fighting each other through all the bygone times. Today, their names are changed to the Kuki-Chin and the Anal-Naga.
The Anal Naga people are first settlers of Chandel District and their brethren namely Maring, Lamkang, Moyon, Monshang, Tarao and Chothe tribes are also first settlers of Chandel District.
May I take this opportunity to appeal to my brethren Nagas and Kukis in Chandel and Manipur to remember that the world today is troubled. People everywhere are seeking the solution to their problems and longing to know what is the real meaning of life and the destiny to which it leads. The world ever remains as a big house of sickness, suffering and death. Fear, hatred and distrust within the hearts of every mankind. Earthquakes, famines and disaster multiply on every hand. Despair grips the hearts of millions. Leaders of men labour in confusion, disorder and bewilderment. Despite of all the religious, social and governmental organizations for the welfare and security of people in this present world, we still have sin, sorrow, poverty and woe. We could not buy a friend, character, peace of mind, a clear conscience, or a sense of eternity.
In a hundred ways man dies by the machines and weapons of his own invention. Thousand perish by the accidents. The time has come when a deceived person believes that he is right when he is wrong, or thinks a thing is wrong when it is right. Satan is the master of such trickery and deception. It seems there is no security everywhere in this present world. The whole world lieth in wickedness – 1 John 5:19. Jesus Christ was betrayed by one of His own disciples. The deposed Iraqi president Saddam Hussain was betrayed by none other than one of the members of his families and was captured without firing even a single shot. It is because of love of big prize money for the head of Saddam. Missionary Paul said, the love of money is the root of all evils but according to the new gospel, love of money is the very root of all success.
God said, “Nevertheless I have this against you that you have left your first love. Remember therefore from where you have fallen; repent and do the first works, or else I will come to you quickly and remove your lampstand from its place unless you repent.” – Rev. 2:4-5. Jesus said, “Thou shall love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” Matthew 22:37-39.
As we professed as Christians or followers of Christ and became as a neighbor, let us adjust ourselves as neighbours and respect each other’s original history, rights of land and peaceful way of life. Let the love of God be within our heart and house. Joshua said, “Choose you this day whom ye will serve… but as for me and my house, we will serve Lord.” – Joshua 24:15. Let us all join Joshua to serve the Lord and live peacefully.
Lastly, in the conflict between good and evil, between love and sin, between Christ and Satan, we are all involved. The present feelings of our human heart for just livelihood are not a safe guide in taking decision to determine our destiny. In my conclusion, though our present life is full of pride, arrogance and rebellion, God is still lovingly, tenderly and patiently speaking to us:
Look unto me and be ye saved – Isaiah 45:22
Come unto me, I will give you rest – Matthew 11:28
I am extending my special gratitude to Dr. Mono T Inbung of Chakpikarong Khupi, Chandel District, Manipur for guiding me, Mr. S. Wurngam, Former CEO, Chandel District Council for providing valuable book in preparation of this brief history.

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